Friday, November 17, 2017

06 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #18

JOHN SINGER SARGENT (FLORENCE, 1856 - 1925, LONDON)
MADAME GAUTREAU DRINKING A TOAST,  c. 1882-1883
Oil on panel
32 x 41 cm (12 5/8 x 16 1/8 in.)
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

Madame Pierre Gautreau, born Virginie Avegno (1859–1915), was Madame X, the statuesque sitter in Sargent’s most notorious portrait (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) (below). Critics considered the portrait in scandalously bad taste, and the sitter’s mother asked Sargent to withdraw the painting from the Salon of 1884, which he refused to do. This much smaller and more intimate painting was done a year earlier, and was given by Sargent to Madame Gautreau’s mother. More on this painting

John Singer Sargent, (American, Florence 1856–1925 London)
Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau), c. 1883–84
Oil on canvas
82 1/8 x 43 1/4in. (208.6 x 109.9cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Madame Pierre Gautreau (the Louisiana-born Virginie Amélie Avegno; 1859–1915) was known in Paris for her artful appearance. Sargent hoped to enhance his reputation by painting and exhibiting her portrait. Working without a commission but with his sitter’s complicity, he emphasized her daring personal style, showing the right strap of her gown slipping from her shoulder. At the Salon of 1884, the portrait received more ridicule than praise. Sargent repainted the shoulder strap and kept the work for over thirty years. When, eventually, he sold it to the Metropolitan, he commented, “I suppose it is the best thing I have done,” but asked that the Museum disguise the sitter’s name. More on this painting

Virginie Amélie Avegno Gautreau (née Avegno, 29 January 1859 – 25 July 1915) was born in New Orleans but grew up from the age of eight in France, where she became a Parisian socialite known for her beauty. She occasionally posed as a model for notable artists. She is most widely known as the subject of John Singer Sargent's painting Portrait of Madame X (1884). It created a social scandal when shown at the Paris Salon.

Virginie Avegno became one of Paris's conspicuous beauties. She attracted much admiration due to her elegance and style. She also attracted much amorous attention that she did not discourage, and her extramarital affairs were so well known that they became the subject of tabloid scandal sheets and gossip handbills. One of her lovers was a Dr. Pozzi. Sargent, anxious to popularize himself by capitalizing on Virginie's notorious reputation, asked Dr. Pozzi to introduce him to Virginie, which the doctor did

Virginie married Pierre Gautreau, a French banker and shipping magnate. She had a daughter named Louise Gautreau (1879–1911).

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his "Portrait of Madame X", was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More John Singer Sargent

Gustave-Claude-Etienne Courtois, (1852–1923)
Portrait de Madame Gautreau, c. 1891

This work was painted seven years after Sargent's portrait, and the falling strap and décolletage raised nary an eyebrow.

Gustave-Claude-Étienne Courtois ( 18 May 1852 in Pusey, Haute-Saône – 1923 in Paris) was a French painter, a representative of the academic style of art. Courtois was born to an unwed mother who was devoted to him. Early in life, Courtois revealed an interest in art and entered the École municipale de dessin in Vesoul.

He taught painting at Académie de la Grande Chaumière, Académie Colarossi, Paris. His paintings can be seen in the art galleries of Besançon, Marseille, Bordeaux, and Luxembourg. He was a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. More on Gustave-Claude-Étienne Courtois

José Cruz Herrera, (1890-1972) 
Desdemona, c. 1942
Oil on canvas
136 X 103cm (53 9/16 X 40 9/16 IN.)
Private collection

Desdemona is a character in William Shakespeare's play Othello (c. 1601–1604). Shakespeare's Desdemona is a Venetian beauty who enrages and disappoints her father, a Venetian senator, when she elopes with Othello, a black man several years her senior. When her husband is deployed to Cyprus in the service of the Republic of Venice, Desdemona accompanies him. There, her husband is manipulated by his ensign Iago into believing she is an adulteress, and, in the last act, she is murdered by her estranged spouse.

José Cruz Herrera (1 October 1890 – 11 August 1972) was a Spanish painter who concentrated principally on genre works and landscape art. He worked in Spain, Uruguay, Argentina, France and especially Morocco, where he lived for much of his life in Casablanca.

His talent was soon apparent and he began formal training in Cádiz. He continued his studies at the School of Fine Arts in Madrid before being awarded a grant to study in Paris and Rome in 1915. He subsequently received several more awards. He concentrated on genre works and landscapes, but he is best known as an orientalist painter, with a particular faculty for producing atmospheric depictions of scenes of everyday life in Morocco.

Cruz Herrera travelled to Montevideo in Uruguay and Buenos Aires in Argentina in 1922. He went to Morocco in 1929. He subsequently established a studio at Neuilly-sur-Seine, just outside Paris, and contributed to collective exhibitions in 1934, 1935 and 1936 at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. He also exhibited solo at various times in Madrid, Barcelona and London in 1912, Antwerp in 1931, Casablanca in 1933, and Paris in 1934.



 After the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939, he returned to Morocco. The following year Spain awarded Cruz Herrera a Knight's Cross in the Order of Isabella the Catholic, followed by a knighthood in the Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise in 1958. He died on 11 August 1972 in Casablanca but his remains were transferred back to La Línea to be buried there. More on José Cruz Herrera

COLIN, Alexandre-Marie, (b. 1798, Paris, d. 1873, Paris)
Othello and Desdemona, 1829
Oil on canvas
51 x 61 cm
Private collection

Colin may first have become interested in depicting Shakespearean subjects when he visited London in 1824 in the company of Delacroix and Bonington. The Othello and Desdemona is a bravura work, faithful to the text, and full of energy and colour.

A student of Girodet and a great friend of Delacroix and Bonington, Alexandre-Marie Colin participated in the Paris Salon starting in 1819 until the end of his life, obtaining a second-class medal in 1824 and 1831, and a first-class medal in 1840.

Colin entered the École des Beaux Arts in 1814, first as a pupil of Girodet, but then joining Guérin's studio in 1816, in which the young Delacroix had also enrolled. He and Delacroix both attracted the attention of their teachers, winning drawing and composition prizes.


Known as a great portraitist, he portrayed well-known figures and also depicted romantic subjects, views of Italy, and scenes illustrating the struggle for independence in Greece. His religious and historical paintings are characterised by a style based on a careful study of the old masters, while his genre pieces are vigorous and lifelike. More on Alexandre-Marie Colin



Antonio Mancini,  (1852–1930)
Resting, circa 1887
60.9 × 100 cm (24 × 39.4 in)
Art Institute of Chicago

Antonio Mancini (14 November 1852 – 28 December 1930) was an Italian painter born in Rome and showed precocious ability as an artist. At the age of twelve, he was admitted to the Institute of Fine Arts in Naples, where he studied under Domenico Morelli, a painter of historical scenes who favored dramatic chiaroscuro and vigorous brushwork, and Filippo Palizzi. Mancini developed quickly under their guidance, and in 1872, he exhibited two paintings at the Paris Salon.

Mancini worked at the forefront of the Verismo movement, an indigenous Italian response to 19th-century Realist aesthetics. His usual subjects included children of the poor, juvenile circus performers, and musicians he observed in the streets of Naples.


In 1881, Mancini suffered a disabling mental illness. He settled in Rome in 1883 for twenty years, then moved to Frascati where he lived until 1918. During this period of Mancini's life, he was often destitute and relied on the help of friends and art buyers to survive. After the First World War, his living situation stabilized and he achieved a new level of serenity in his work. Mancini died in Rome in 1930 and buried in the Basilica Santi Bonifacio e Alessio on the Aventine Hill. More on Antonio Mancini










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Friday, November 10, 2017

05 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 17th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #17

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn,  (1606–1669)
Portrait of a Young Woman (Magdalena van Loo?), 1665
Oil on canvas
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

Titus van Rijn was born in Amsterdam on September 22, 1641, the fourth child of the famed artist Rembrandt van Rijn and his wife Saskia van Uylenburgh.

In 1668, Titus married Magdalena van Loo (1641-1669). The couple lived at Magdalena's mother's house on the Singel. They had one daughter. Titus van Rijn died in 1668 and was buried in the Westerkerk in Amsterdam. His wife, mother-in-law, and father all died a year later. More on Titus van Rijn

By the end of his long and productive career. This portrait, executed in the last years of the artist's life, provides an example of his masterful economy. Restricted to a rich range of blacks, loosely applied flesh tones and rough strokes of white, the light is carefully manipulated in the undefined strokes of white. The painting has been reduced in scale at an earlier period in its history, and probably was closer to a half-length portrait with a pendant of the sitter's husband: a possible candidate that has been proposed by scholars is the portrait of Titus, Rembrandt's son, at the Louvre. In that case, the woman portrayed in our painting is Magdalena van Loo, and the painting should be dated to 1668, when they married, which is consistent with the style of this fine late portrait by the master. More on this painting

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres in painting.
Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.
In his paintings and prints he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization. More on Rembrandt


Jan Frederik Pieter Portielje, (1829-1895) 
JEUNE FEMME À LA RICHE COIFFE ROUGE 
YOUNG LADY WITH A RICH RED SCARF 
Oil on panel
60 X 48cm (23 5/8 x 18 7/8 IN.)
Private collection

Jan Frederik Pieter Portielje (Amsterdam, 1829 - 1908) was a Dutch-Belgian painter. He was the tenth child by Gerrit Portielje, bookseller and publisher in Amsterdam, and Jacoba Zeegers. He studied at the Academy of Amsterdam from 1842 to 1849 with, among others, Valentine Bing and Jan von Braet Uberfeldt. Between 1851 and 1853 he stayed several times for extended periods of time in Paris, possibly during the summer months when the Academy was closed due to holidays. He also worked as a portraitist and as such had a growing clientele in Brussels and Antwerp.

His oeuvre includes portraits, scenes of elegant ladies in gardens, parks, or luxurious interiors. The interiors are either heavy or elegant neo-Baroque Napoleon III. He painted Western and Southern or Oriental women, often adorned with jewels. His painting are realistic, with an eye for detail and texture, intended as an elegant genre painting without much depth.

On some paintings he collaborated with another artist. There are paintings known, together with Frans Lebret (1820-1909) and Eugène Remy Maes (1849-1931).


After his studies Portielje remained in Antwerp. He married there in 1853. More on Jan Frederik Pieter Portielje


William-Adolphe Bouguereau, (1825–1905)
Berceuse (Le coucher), c. 1873
oil on canvas
112 x 86.5 cm
Private collection

Starting in 1865, Bouguereau became enamored with the theme of mothers and children and began a series of paintings dedicated to this subject matter. 

Berceuse (Le coucher) was painted in the artist's Paris studio in 1873. In the present painting, a young Roman mother holds a naked infant and is gently moving him into his cradle. The central group is framed by the draped cradle to the left of the composition and the large stone fireplace that dominates the background. The figures, clearly a secularized interpretation of a Virgin and Child. More on this painting

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 – August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter and traditionalist. In his realistic genre paintings he used mythological themes, making modern interpretations of classical subjects, with an emphasis on the female human body. During his life he enjoyed significant popularity in France and the United States, was given numerous official honors, and received top prices for his work. As the quintessential salon painter of his generation, he was reviled by the Impressionist avant-garde. By the early twentieth century, Bouguereau and his art fell out of favor with the public, due in part to changing tastes. In the 1980s, a revival of interest in figure painting led to a rediscovery of Bouguereau and his work. Throughout the course of his life, Bouguereau executed 822 known finished paintings, although the whereabouts of many are still unknown. More William-Adolphe Bouguereau

Roberto Manetta, Italy
Mother nature
Photography
39.4 H x 27.6 W x 15.7 in
Private collection


Mother Nature (sometimes known as Mother Earth or the Earth-Mother) is a common personification of nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing aspects of nature by embodying it, in the form of the mother.

The earliest written usage is in Mycenaean Greek, "Mother Gaia",  (13th or 12th century BC). The various myths of nature goddesses such as Inanna/Ishtar show that the personification of the creative and nurturing sides of nature as female deities. Later medieval Christian thinkers did not see nature as inclusive of everything, but thought that she had been created by God; her place lay on earth, below the unchanging heavens and moon. Nature lay somewhere in the center, with agents above her (angels), and below her (demons and hell). For the medieval mind she was only a personification, not a goddess. More on Mother nature

Roberto Manetta is a traveling freelance photographer, Film and digital photography, since 1999. "No digital manipulation,only photography My passion comes from nature, adventure stories, fantasy films that have contributed phenomenally to my project ideas and the major part of my photographs. I am always very attentive, in all of my movements, in everything surrounding me. I often dream about adventures, fairy tales and mythological women. I look around at the objects surrounding me, with attention, searching for a link between a nude body more than a face. Geometric lines and original compositions are always at the centre of my attention when I launch upon a new project. I don’t really like the classic approach to nude photography. During the years I tried to maintain in all my productions a quality that re-conducted to classical photography, the one which is created without the need of much digital elaboration" More on Roberto Manetta


Eugène Delacroix,  (1798–1863)
Mademoiselle Rose, c. 1817-1824
Oil on canvas
81 × 65 cm (31.9 × 25.6 in)
Louvre Museum

Mademoiselle Rose, an artists' model who according to Delacroix's biographer, posed several times for him and for Richard Parkes Bonington, and who perhaps distributed her favours impartially between the two artists.

The upward trend of his work, clearly seen in this painting, brings its date to the period 1820-1822, but cannot be fixed precisely. However, the nude has not only a pictorial interest: Delacroix brings to the painting an emotion which is firmly rooted in Romanticism. Moreover, the slight timidity of the attitude, the somewhat anxious expression of the face, give to this life-class painting a quality of humanity that is purely French Romantic. More on Mademoiselle Rose

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.

As a painter and muralist, Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish author Walter Scott and the German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on colour and movement rather than clarity of outline and carefully modelled form. Dramatic and romantic content characterized the central themes of his maturity, and led him not to the classical models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the exotic. Friend and spiritual heir to Théodore Géricault, Delacroix was also inspired by Lord Byron, with whom he shared a strong identification with the "forces of the sublime", of nature in often violent action.


However, Delacroix was given to neither sentimentality nor bombast, and his Romanticism was that of an individualist. In the words of Baudelaire, "Delacroix was passionately in love with passion, but coldly determined to express passion as clearly as possible." MoreFerdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix







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Friday, October 27, 2017

05 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #16

John Duncan Fergusson, R.B.A. 1874–1961
In the Patio: Margaret Morris Fergusson
Oil on canvas
71 x 61 cm
 Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art

This is a portrait of the artist's wife Margaret Morris (1891-1980), an influential innovator in modern dance and an accomplished artist in her own right. She studied dance in Paris and by 1910 was established in London with her own dance school, becoming London’s youngest theatre manager two years later. Morris met Fergusson in Paris in 1913 and they moved to Glasgow in 1939. Together they collaborated on many dance projects and Morris helped to lay the foundations for modern dance practice. Fergusson's paintings often have erotic overtones - here the shapes of the fruit echo the forms of the breasts. He has used a reduced palette of colours and created harmony within the composition through the repeated use of arcs, on the head, still-life elements and arches in the background..More on this painting

John Duncan Fergusson, (b Leith , 9 Mar. 1874; d Glasgow, 30 Jan. 1961). Scottish painter (mainly of landscapes and figure subjects) and occasional sculptor, the best known of the Scottish Colourists. From about 1895 he made regular visits to Paris and he lived there 1907–14. His early work was Whistlerian and he then came under the influence of Manet, but by 1907 he had adopted the bold palette of Fauvism and became the most uncompromising adherent to the style among British artists (Blue Beads, 1910, Tate, London). More on John Duncan Fergusson

GUILLAUME SEIGNAC, French (1870-1924) 
Indolence
Oil on canvas
24 x 20 3/4 inches 
Private collection

An idle dreamer, one who lives a life of indolence and ease. The lotus-eaters or lotophagi are a mythical people found in Homer’s Odyssey. Odysseus discovers them in a state of dreamy forgetfulness and contentment induced by their consumption of the legendary lotus fruit. Having lost all desire to return to their homelands, they want only to remain in Lotus-land living a life of idle luxury. Use of the term dates from the first half of the 19th century. More on Indolence

Guillaum Seignac (1870–1924) was a French academic painter. He was born in Rennes in 1870, and died in Paris in 1924. He started training at the Académie Julian in Paris, where he spent 1889 through 1895. He had many teachers there, including Gabriel Ferrier, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, and Tony Robert-Fleury. In addition to his training in the academic style, much of Seignac's work displayed classical themes and style, for example, his use of diaphanous drapery covering a woman's body is reminiscent of classical style, in particular the sculptor Phidias. In 1897, Guillaume Seignac regularly exhibited at the Salon and won several honors, including in 1900 honorable mention and in 1903 a Third Class medal. More Guillaum Seignac

Guillaum Seignac made several paintings named 'Indolence' using the same model


Edouard Vuillard, (1868-1940)
Yvonne Printemps au fauteuil, c. 1921' (lower right)
Peinture à la colle on canvas
51 1/8 x 38 1/8 in. (129.9 x 96.9 cm.)
Private collection

Yvonne Printemps (French; 25 July 1894 – 19 January 1977) was a French singer and actress who achieved stardom on stage and screen in France and internationally.

She made her debut as a performer at the age of 12 in a revue at La Cigale in Paris. At 21 she was singled out by the actor, director and playwright Sacha Guitry as a leading lady. In 1919 they were married, and worked closely together until 1932, when they divorced. Printemps never remarried, but had a personal and professional partnership with the actor Pierre Fresnay which lasted until his death in 1975.

Edouard Vuillard,  (1868-1940)
Yvonne Printemps and Sacha Guitry, c. 1917
Oil, paper
89 x 63 cm
Museu de Arte de São Paulo - São Paulo, Brazil

Yvonne Printemps. As a performer, Printemps was famed for the quality of her singing voice and for her personal charm. Among those who composed for her were André Messager, Reynaldo Hahn, Noël Coward and Francis Poulenc. Her voice could have led her to an operatic career, but guided by Guitry she concentrated on operette and other types of musical show, along with non-musical plays and films. In addition to her many successes in Paris she appeared to great acclaim in the West End of London, and on Broadway in New York. More on Yvonne Printemps

Jean-Édouard Vuillard (11 November 1868 – 21 June 1940) was a French painter and printmaker associated with the Nabis. The son of a retired captain, he spent his youth at Cuiseaux (Saône-et-Loire); in 1878 his family moved to Paris in modest circumstances. After his father's death in 1884, Vuillard received a scholarship to continue his education. In the Lycée Condorcet Vuillard met Ker Xavier Roussel (also a future painter and Vuillard's future brother in law), Maurice Denis, musician Pierre Hermant, writer Pierre Véber, and Lugné-Poe.

Vuillard was a member of the Symbolist group known as Les Nabis (from the Hebrew and Arabic term for "prophets" and, by extension, the artist as the "seer" who reveals the invisible). However, he was less drawn to the mystical aspects of the group and more drawn to fashionable private venues where philosophical discussions about poetry, music, theatre, and the occult occurred. Because of his preference for the painting of interior and domestic scenes, he is often referred to as an "intimist," along with his friend Pierre Bonnard. He executed some of these "intimist" works in small scale, while others were conceived on a much larger scale made for the interiors of the people who commissioned the work. More Jean-Édouard Vuillard

Joseph Farquharson, R.A., 1846-1935
A GIRL RESTING ON THE DUNES
Oil on canvas
30.5 by 46cm., 12 by 18in.
Private collection

Joseph Farquharson, R.A., 1846-1935 was a tremendously skilled and popular painter who became renowned for his snowscapes, particularly those featuring sheep, and his countryside scenes. Many of his paintings were completed in the North East of Scotland at Finzean. Born in Edinburgh in 1846, Farquharson studied first at the Life School at the Royal Scottish Academy. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1873 and was elected an Associate in 1900. In 1880 he travelled to Paris where he studied under Carolus Duran, and in 1885 he went to Egypt. He died in 1935.

The remarkable realism of Farquharson’s work can be attributed to his desire to work in "plein air". However, this had to be carried out in a way which was adapted to the rigours of the Scottish climate: by constructing a painting hut on wheels, complete with a stove and large glass window for observing the scenery. Also, to achieve as realistic a result as possible when painting the sheep which frequently appear in his snowscapes, he owned a flock of "imitation" sheep which could be placed as required in the landscape of his choice. The unusual titles of many of Farquharson's paintings are worthy of note, and many of them were taken from poems by Burns, Milton, Shakespeare and Gray. More on Joseph Farquharson





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09 Paintings, Streets of Paris, by its Artists , - Part 11 - With Footnotes

Paris, France's capital, is a major European city and a global center for art, fashion, gastronomy and culture. Its 19th-century cityscape is crisscrossed by wide boulevards and the River Seine. Beyond such landmarks as the Eiffel Tower and the 12th-century, Gothic Notre-Dame cathedral, the city is known for its cafe culture and designer boutiques along the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. More on Paris

Louis Abel-Truchet, VERSAILLES 1857 - 1918 AUXERRE
FAIRGROUND WITH THE SACRÉ-COEUR IN THE BACKGROUND, c. 1904
Oil on canvas
90,5 x 70 cm ; 35 5/8 by 27 1/2 in.
Private collection

The Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Paris is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The basilica is located at the summit of the butte Montmartre, the highest point in the city. Sacré-Cœur is a double monument, political and cultural, both a national penance for the defeat of France in the 1871 Franco-Prussian War and the socialist Paris Commune of 1871 crowning its most rebellious neighborhood, and an embodiment of conservative moral order

The Sacré-Cœur Basilica was designed by Paul Abadie. Construction began in 1875 and was finished in 1914. It was consecrated after the end of World War I in 1919. More on the Basilica

Louis Abel-Truchet, 1857 - 1918,  was an important French painter, etcher and lithographer in his lifetime. He was born in 1857 in Versailles. He is predominantly known for his paintings depicting Paris at the turn of the century, with cafés, theatres, shops, everyday life and fashionable Parisians forming an essential part of the subject matter.

He exhibited from 1891 in various salons and was a founding member of the Salon d'Automne and the Societe des Humoristes. He also exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français and the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, becoming a member in 1910.
Though influenced by impressionism, Abel-Truchet is also satirical at times and his work focused on the Belle Epoque, linking him with artists such as Galien-Laloue, Forain and Steinlen.

In 1914, aged fifty seven, he volunteered to fight in the World War One. He was to produce a series of lithographs depicting scenes from his experiences. He commanded a section of fighting troops during the war and was awarded the Legion of Honour and La Croix de Guerre. Abel-Truchet died in service in the last few months of the war. More on Louis Abel-Truchet

Louis Abel-Truchet, VERSAILLES 1857 - 1918 AUXERRE
Paris, les autobus, place Pigalle - 1920 
Oil on canvas
65 x 81 cm 
Private collection

Louis Abel-Truchet, VERSAILLES 1857 - 1918 AUXERRE, FRENCH
FAIRGROUND, PLACE PIGALLE
Oil on canvas
46 x 38 cm ; 18 by 15 in.
Private collection

The Place Pigalle is a public square located in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, between the Boulevard de Clichy and the Boulevard de Rochechouart, near Sacré-Cœur, at the foot of the Montmartre hill. The place takes its name from the sculptor, Jean-Baptiste Pigalle (1714–1785), and it is the best-known district of the Quartier Pigalle, the Pigalle district.

The square and the surrounding streets were, at the end of the 19th century, a neighbourhood of painters' studios and literary cafés. More on The Place Pigalle

Louis Abel-Truchet, see above

Abraham de Verwer, HAARLEM 1585 - 1650 AMSTERDAM
VIEW OF PARIS FROM THE PONT-ROYAL WITH THE GRANDE GALERIE DU LOUVRE, THE PONT-NEUF AND THE NESLE TOWER, c. 1664
Oil on panel
54 x 90 cm ; 21 1/4  by 35 1/2  in
Private collection

The Pont Royal is a bridge crossing the river Seine in Paris. It is the third oldest bridge in Paris, after the Pont Neuf and the Pont Marie. The Pont Royal links the Right Bank by the Pavillon de Flore with the Left Bank of Paris between rue du Bac and the rue de Beaune. The bridge is constructed with five elliptical arches en plein cintre. A hydrographic ladder, indicating floods' highest level in Paris, is visible on the last pier nearest each bank. More on The Pont Royal

Abraham de Verwer (1585, Haarlem – 1650, Amsterdam), was a Dutch Golden Age painter of cityscapes, (river) landscapes and seascapes. He was also called Abraham de Verweer van Burghstrate. He travelled in northern France and when he returned, he settled in Amsterdam. It is unknown who taught him to paint, but he was noted in his wife's testament in Haarlem in 1607 as a "schrijnwerker" or cabinet-maker, and in 1614 he was noted in an Amsterdam estate inventory as a painter. He travelled in France from 1637-1639. He was the father of the Amsterdam poet Catharina Verwers and the Amsterdam painter Justus de Verwer.  More on Abraham de Verwer 

Lucien GENIN, 1894 - 1958 
At the restaurant 
Gouache on paper 
Height: 23,50 Width: 31 cm 
Private collection

Lucien Génin (9 November 1894 in Rouen – 26 August 1953 in Paris) was a French painter in the milieu of pre-World War I, and 1920s Montmartre and Saint-Germain-des-Prés. 

After the devastation of the First World War, Lucien left his provincial home in the autumn of 1919 to find his fortune among the lively Parisians in the heart of Montmartre. Not concerning himself with producing “art”, he beautifully captured the spirit if Paris between the wars while enjoying a truly Bohemian existence. Genin’s works in all their forms, perfectly convey these eclectic and friendly characters of the city and he was so well loved that one collector said “separate me from my Vlaminck, my foujita, my Derain, my Dunoyer de Segonzac and I will survive…but my Genin, never!”. More on Lucien Génin

Francois Gerome, French, 1895-? 
Boulevard Montparnasse, Paris 
Oil on canvas 
24 x 30 inches
Private collection

The Boulevard du Montparnasse is a two-way boulevard in Montparnasse, in the 6th, 14th & 15th arrondissements in Paris. Students in the 17th century who came to recite poetry in the hilly neighbourhood nicknamed it after "Mount Parnassus", home to the nine Muses of arts and sciences in Greek mythology.

The hill was levelled to construct the Boulevard Montparnasse in the 18th century. During the French Revolution many dance halls and cabarets opened their doors.

The area is also known for cafés and bars, such as the Breton restaurants specialising in crêpes located a few blocks from the Gare Montparnasse. More on The Boulevard du Montparnasse 

François Gérôme (born 1895 in Paris) was a French painter. He is best known for his paintings of women depicted at picturesque spots throughout Paris including the Place de la Concorde and in front of the Opéra. In these representations, the women usually engage the viewer with their frontal pose and direct gaze outward. Gerome used oils, typically on canvas or on board. He signed his paintings with his first initial and last name, but was also known to sign in his alias B. Kovacs. More on François Gérôme 

Ramon PICHOT GIRONES, 1872 - 1925 
Gitanes on the plaza 
Watercolor, pastel and charcoal on paper mounted on cardboard 
Height: 44 Width: 32 cm 
Private collection

Ramon Pichot Gironès (Catalan; 1871 – 1 March 1925) was a Catalan and Spanish artist. He painted in an impressionist style. He was a good friend of Pablo Picasso and an early mentor to young Salvador Dalí. Dalí met Pichot in Cadaqués, Spain, when was only 10 years old. Pichot also made many trips to France. Once in a while, Dalí and his family would go on a trip with Pichot and his family.

He married Germaine Pichot, a well-known artist's model, in 1906. Together they had a restaurant near the Bateau Lavoir, called La maison rose. Pichot left Paris after World War I but returned often to buy books, as he had turned into a bibliophile. On such a trip, he suddenly died on 1 March 1925. Picasso was so shaken by this that he included Pichot's figure in the painting "Three Dancers", on which he was working at the time. More on Ramon Pichot Gironè

John Duncan Fergusson, Scottish (1874 - 1961)
La Terrasse, Café d'Harcourt, c. 1908 - 1909
 Oil on canvas
108.60 x 122.00 cm
Scottish National Gallery Of Modern Art

This painting depicts the terrace of the fashionable Café d'Harcourt, on the Boulevard St Michel, opposite the Sorbonne University in Paris. Fergusson immensely enjoyed being part of the 'café society.' An outgoing character, he was part of a group of Anglo-American artists who made the café the centre of their social and intellectual life. Fergusson has flattened the perspective in this painting, drawing attention to surface pattern. The use of flat, bright areas of colour in particular, the green shadows in the face of the man on the right of the painting shows the influence of Matisse and the fauvist painters. More on this painting

John Duncan Fergusson, (b Leith , 9 Mar. 1874; d Glasgow, 30 Jan. 1961). Scottish painter (mainly of landscapes and figure subjects) and occasional sculptor, the best known of the Scottish Colourists. From about 1895 he made regular visits to Paris and he lived there 1907–14. His early work was Whistlerian and he then came under the influence of Manet, but by 1907 he had adopted the bold palette of Fauvism and became the most uncompromising adherent to the style among British artists (Blue Beads, 1910, Tate, London). More on John Duncan Fergusson

Lyonel Feininger
Strasse in Paris - Streets in Paris , 1918
Woodblock on Kozo paper
33.375 x 26.75 in
Private collection

Lyonel Charles Feininger (July 17, 1871 – January 13, 1956) was a German-American painter, and a leading exponent of Expressionism. He also worked as a caricaturist and comic strip artist. He was born and grew up in New York City, traveling to Germany at 16 to study and perfect his art. He started his career as a cartoonist in 1894 and met with much success in this area. He was also a commercial caricaturist for 20 years for magazines and newspapers in the USA and Germany. At the age of 36, he started to work as a fine artist. He also produced a large body of photographic works between 1928 and the mid 1950s, but he kept these primarily within his circle of friends. He was also a pianist and composer, with several piano compositions and fugues for organ extant. More on Lyonel Charles Feininger




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