Tuesday, June 13, 2017

13 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings - With Footnotes, #31

FOLLOWER OF ANGE-JOSEPH-ANTOINE ROUX, (french 1765-1835) 
"ACTION BETWEEN H.M FRIGATE ''AMBUSCADE'' AND THE FRENCH FRIGATE ''BAYONNAISE''" 
Oil on canvas 
23 3/8 x 30 in. (59.4 x 76.2cm)
Private Collection

HMS Ambuscade was a 32-gun fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy, built in 1773. The French captured her in 1798 but the British recaptured her in 1803. She was broken up in 1810.

On 13 December 1798, Ambuscade captured a French merchantman, Faucon, with a cargo of sugar and coffee bound for Bordeaux. Disaster struck the following day. Ambuscade was blockading Rochefort, when the smaller French corvette Bayonnaise captured her at the Action of 14 December 1798. The court martial exonerated Captain Henry Jenkins of Ambuscade, though a good case could be made that he exhibited poor leadership and ship handling. The French brought her into service as Embuscade.

On 28 May 1803, HMS Victory recaptured her. She had a crew of 187 men under the command of capitaine de vaisseau Fradin, and was 30 days out of Cap Francais, bound for Rochefort. The Royal Navy took her back into service as Ambuscade.

In March 1805, she was attached to Sir James Craig's military expedition to Italy. Along with Dragon, Craig's flagship, and Lively, Ambuscade escorted a fleet of transports to Malta. On 4 March 1807, Ambuscade captured the ship Istria. Unité, Melpomene, Bittern and Weazel (or Weazle) were in company and shared in the prize money. More on the Ambuscade

Jean François Hue, (French, 1751-1823)
French corvette Bayonnaise boarding HMS Ambuscade during the Action of 14 December 1798

Bayonnaise was a 24-gun corvette of the French Navy, launched in 1793. Bayonnaise was being built as a privateer when the Ministry of Marine requisitioned her in 1793 before she sailed. The Ministry assumed the construction contracts and purchased her in March 1794. Her hull was coppered in 1795 in Brest. She was officially renamed Brême that year, but apparently the new name was roundly ignored.

She became famous for the Action of 14 December 1798, in which she captured the much stronger 32-gun Ambuscade off the Gironde. Ambuscade was blockading Rochefort, when the smaller Bayonnaise captured her. Ambuscade had ten men killed, including her first lieutenant and master, and 36 wounded, including her captain. Bayonnaise had 30 killed, and 30 badly wounded, including Richer and his first lieutenant.

On 28 November 1803, Ardent gave chase to Bayonnaise in Finisterre Bay. The corvette's crew ran her ashore and then set fire to her prevent the British from capturing her. Captain Winthrop of Ardent described Bayonnaise as a frigate of 32 guns and 220 men, which had been sailing from Havana to Ferrol. Actually, Bayonnaise was armed en flute with only six 8-pounder guns, and was returning from the Antilles.

Archaeologists of the "Finisterre Project" in August 2010 located Bayonnaise's wreck on Langosteira beach, Finisterre. More on the Bayonnaise

Ange-Joseph Antoine Roux, "Antoine Roux" (1765–1835) was a French fine art painter who specialised in maritime painting, sometimes referred to as marine art. Roux came from a family of artists and primarily worked in Marseille. Early in life he was apprenticed to his father, Joseph Roux (1752–93), an hydrographer as well as an artist in his own right, spending his leisure hours painting and drawing. He died of cholera in Marseille in 1835. More Roux

Jean-François Hue ( Saint-Arnoult-en-Yvelines , December 2, 1751 - Paris, 26 December 1823) was a French landscape painter of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He was received at the Royal Academy in 1782. His main sources of inspiration for his works are his great voyages.

He entered the studio of Joseph Vernet as a painter and landscape designer; He painted four views of the castle of Mousseaux and it's gardens.

Having specialized in landscapes and marines, his talent allowed him to become an official Navy painter, following in the footsteps of his master Joseph Vernet . Thus, in 1791 , the Constituent Assembly entrusted him with the task of completing the series representing the ports of France, commissioned at Vernet from 1753 .

Between 1792 and 1798 , he executed a series of six paintings on the theme of the ports of Brittany . More on Jean-François Hue

Thomas Bush Hardy
Scarborough, c. 1895
watercolour
22cm x 71cm
Private Collection

Scarborough is a town on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England. The town lies between 10–230 feet (3–70 m) above sea level, rising steeply northward and westward from the harbour onto limestone cliffs. 


The most striking feature of the town's geography is a high rocky promontory pointing eastward into the North Sea. The promontory supports the 11th century ruins of Scarborough Castle and separates the seafront into two bays, to the north and south. More on Scarborough 

Thomas Bush Hardy (1842, Sheffield – 1897, Maida Vale, London) was a British marine painter and watercolourist. As a young man he travelled in the Netherlands and Italy. In 1884 Hardy was elected a Member of the Royal Society of British Artists. He exhibited with the Society and also at the Royal Academy.
His paintings feature coastal scenes in England and the Netherlands, the French Channel ports and the Venetian Lagoon.

Hardy had nine children. His son Dudley Hardy was a painter, illustrator and poster designer. His daughter Dorothy received an MBE after working as a nurse in the First World War. He died on 15 December 1897 in Maida Vale, London. More on Thomas Bush Hardy

Charles Dixon, 1872 - 1934
In Mid Atlantic, c. 1921
Watercolour heightened with body colour
43.5cm x 76.5cm
Private Collection

Charles Edward Dixon (8 December 1872 - 12 September 1934) was a British maritime painter of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, whose work was highly successful and regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy. Several of his paintings are held by the National Maritime Museum and he was a regular contributing artist to magazines and periodicals. He lived at Itchenor in Sussex and died in 1934. More on Charles Edward Dixon

Charles Dixon, 1872 - 1934
Tower Bridge, 1910
Watercolour and bodycolour on paper on paper
535 x 372mm
Private Collection

Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London built between 1886 and 1894. The bridge crosses the River Thames close to the Tower of London. 

In the second half of the 19th century, an advertisement in the East End of London led to a hiring for a new river crossing downstream of London Bridge. A traditional fixed bridge at street level could not be built because it would cut off access by sailing ships to the port facilities in the Pool of London, between London Bridge and the Tower of London. More on the Tower Bridge

Lyonel Feininger, 1910 - 2011
Romance at the seaside, 1943
Watercolour and ink on paper
24 x 31.5 cm.
Private Collection


T. Lux Feininger (June 11, 1910 Berlin — July 7, 2011 Cambridge) was an American painter, avant-garde photographer, author, and art teacher who was born in Berlin to Julia Berg and Lyonel Charles Feininger, an American living in Germany from the age of sixteen. His father was the first faculty appointment made to the Bauhaus in Weimar by its founder, Walter Gropius, in 1919. He had two older full brothers, including Andreas Feininger, and two half sisters, even older, by Clara Fürst and his father (from his first marriage). More Lyonel Feininger 


Lyonel Feininger, 1910 - 2011
Untitled - sailing boat, c. 1934
ink, watercolour on paper
16.1 x 19 cm
Private Collection

William Lee Hankey, (1869–1952) 
Sardine Boats at Douarnenez, France
Oil on canvas
63 x 76cm (24 3/4 x 29 7/8in.)
Private Collection

William Lee Hankey (1869–1952) RWS,RI,ROI,RE,NS was a British painter and book illustrator. He specialised in landscapes, character studies and portraits of pastoral life, particularly in studies of mothers with young children.

He was born in Chester and worked as a designer after leaving school. He studied art in the evenings at the Chester School of Art, then at the Royal College of Art. Later in Paris he became influenced by the work of Jules Bastien-Lepage, who also favoured rustic scenes depicted in a realistic but sentimental style. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1896 and was President of the London Sketch Club from 1902 to 1904. He stayed in France in the early 1900s, painting many of his works in Brittany and Normandy. From 1904 until well after World War I he maintained a studio at the Etaples art colony.

It was Hankey's black and white and coloured etchings of the people of Étaples, which gained him a reputation as 'one of the most gifted of the figurative printmakers working in original drypoint during the first thirty years of the 20th century'. One that is particularly striking for its stylistic presentation was "The Refugees", his contribution to raising awareness of the consequences for ordinary people of the German invasion of France and Belgium in 1914. He went on to serve with the Artists' Rifles from 1915 to 1918.

In Britain he had been associated with the Newlyn School, a group of English artists based in the titular village in Cornwall who were themselves influenced by the romantic poets such as Wordsworth and Keats. More on William Lee Hankey

Michael Peter Ancher  (1849–1927)
The Lifeboat is Taken through the Dunes, c. 1883
Oil on canvas
171 × 221 cm (67.3 × 87 in)
Museum for Kunst,  Copenhagen

Michael Peter Ancher (9 June 1849 – 19 September 1927) was a Danish realist artist. He is remembered above all for his paintings of fishermen and other scenes from the Danish fishing community in Skagen. Ancher was born on the island of Bornholm. He attended school in Rønne but was unable to complete his secondary education as his father ran into financial difficulties. In 1866, he met the painters Theodor Philipsen and Vilhelm Groth. Impressed with his own early work, they encouraged him to take up painting as a profession. In 1871, he spent a short period at C.V Nielsen's art school as a preliminary to joining the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen later in the year. Although he spent some time at the academy, he left in 1875 without graduating.

Michael Peter Ancher  (1849–1927)
Will he round the point? c. 1885
Oil on canvas
110x142 cm.
Private Collection

He achieved his artistic breakthrough in 1879 with the painting Vil han klare pynten (Will He Round the Point?) (above). Michael Ancher's works depict Skagen's heroic fishermen and their dramatic experiences at sea. More on Michael Peter Ancher 

N. C. Wyeth, 1882 - 1945
Deep Cove Lobster Man, ca.1938
Oil on gessoed board (Renaissance Panel)
16 1/4 x 22 3/4 in.
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Newell Convers Wyeth (October 22, 1882 – October 19, 1945), known as N. C. Wyeth, was an American artist and illustrator. During his lifetime, Wyeth created over 3,000 paintings and illustrated 112 books, 25 of them for Scribner's, the Scribner Classics, which is the work for which he is best known. The first of these, Treasure Island, was one of his masterpieces and the proceeds paid for his studio. Wyeth was a realist painter just as the camera and photography began to compete with his craft. Sometimes seen as melodramatic, his illustrations were designed to be understood quickly. He is notably the father of painter Andrew Wyeth and the grandfather of Jamie Wyeth, both celebrated American painters. More on Newell Convers Wyeth

Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, 1863 - 1923
Breakwater, San Sebastian, 1918

Oil on canvas
81 x 104.5 cm
Sorolla Museum,  Madrid, Spain


San Sebastián is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. It lies on the coast of the Bay of Biscay, 20 km from the French border. San Sebastián's picturesque shoreline makes it a popular beach resort. The seaside environment is enhanced by hilly surroundings that are easily accessible. More on San Sebastián

Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (27 February 1863 10 August 1923) was a Spanish painter. Sorolla excelled in the painting of portraits, landscapes, and monumental works of social and historical themes. His most typical works are characterized by a dexterous representation of the people and landscape under the sunlight of his native land. More on Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida

UNKNOWN (20TH CENTURY)
STEAM SHIP
Oil on panel
8 x 10 in.
Private Collection



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Friday, June 9, 2017

09 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings - With Footnotes, #30

Joseph Mallord William Turner
Ships a Sea, getting a Good Wetting, 1844
Oil on canvas
 J. Paul Getty Museum

Joseph Mallord William Turner, RA (baptised 14 May 1775 – 19 December 1851) was an English Romanticist landscape painter. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting.

Although renowned for his oil paintings, Turner is also one of the greatest masters of British watercolour landscape painting. He is commonly known as "the painter of light" and his work is regarded as a Romantic preface to Impressionism. More on Joseph Mallord William Turner

Montague Dawson
TEARING ON” / THE ‘WILD RANGER’ 1044 TONS BUILT IN 1853
Oil on canvas
50.8 x 77.5 cm.
Private collection

This painting depicts the three-masted clipper ship WILD RANGER in rough seas. Most of the ships sails are unfurled. This ship conducted trade between America and Australia during 1857 and 1860.

The era of the clipper ships was dominated by a sense of romance, competition, national pride and innovative technology. The sleek and graceful ships were a symbol of modernity in America and a fundamental part of the expanding global economy. Their design concentrated on speed instead of cargo capacity, a great benefit to shipping companies eager to transport goods quickly. The WILD RANGER was a 1044 ton clipper ship built by J O Curtis at Medford, Massachusetts in 1853. It made a number of journeys from America to Sydney and Melbourne between 1857- 1860, before being renamed OCEAN CHIEF in 1862. The vessel foundered off Australia’s coast in 1872. It is claimed the crew wanted to abandon the ship for the gold fields and exacerbated its destruction by boring holes in the pumps. More on the WILD RANGER

Montague Dawson, 1890–1973
TEARING ON” / THE ‘WILD RANGER’ 1044 TONS BUILT IN 1853
Detail

Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) was a British painter who was renowned as a maritime artist. His most famous paintings depict sailing ships, usually clippers or warships of the 18th and 19th centuries. Montague was the son of a keen yachtsman and the grandson of the marine painter Henry Dawson (1811–1878), born in Chiswick, London. Much of his childhood was spent on Southampton Water where he was able to indulge his interest in the study of ships. For a brief period around 1910 Dawson worked for a commercial art studio in Bedford Row, London, but with the outbreak of the First World War he joined the Royal Navy. Whilst serving with the Navy in Falmouth he met Charles Napier Hemy (1841–1917), who considerably influenced his work. In 1924 Dawson was the official artist for an Expedition to the South Seas by the steam yacht St.George. During the expedition he provided illustrated reports to the Graphic magazine.

After the War, Dawson established himself as a professional marine artist, concentrating on historical subjects and portraits of deep-water sailing ships. During the Second World War, he was employed as a war artist. Dawson exhibited regularly at the Royal Society of Marine Artists, of which he became a member, from 1946 to 1964, and occasionally at the Royal Academy between 1917 and 1936. By the 1930s he was considered one of the greatest living marine artists, whose patrons included two American Presidents, Dwight D Eisenhower and Lyndon B Johnson, as well as the British Royal Family. Also in the 1930s, he moved to Milford-Upon-Sea in Hampshire, living there for many years. Dawson is noted for the strict accuracy in the nautical detail of his paintings which often sell for six figures.

The work of Montague Dawson is represented in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich and the Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth. More on Montague Dawson

Thomas Luny, ST. EWE, CORNWALL 1759 - 1837 LONDON
THE BOMBARDMENT OF ALGIERS, 27 AUGUST 1816
Oil on canvas
39 3/4  by 50 in.; 101 by 127 cm.
Private Collection

The action was under the command of Admiral Lord Exmouth off Algiers on 27 August 1816.  Following Napoleon’s final defeat in 1815, the Royal Navy no longer needed the assistance of the Barbary States as a source of supplies for Gibraltar and would no longer tolerate further threat of piracy in the Mediterranean, or the systemic enslavement of Europeans in North Africa.  A  diplomatic mission was undertaken to secure the release of British subjects held in captivity.  However, when Algerian troops massacred two hundred Corsican, Sicilian and Sardinian fishermen who were under British protection, it was finally decided that action should be taken.

Thomas Luny, ST. EWE, CORNWALL 1759 - 1837 LONDON
THE BOMBARDMENT OF ALGIERS, 27 AUGUST 1816
Detail

The fleet reached Algiers on 27 August and, when no answer was given to Lord Exmouth’s demands for the release of prisoners, the order was given to fire.  The fire was returned and a fierce action ensued, lasting eight hours.  The Algerian batteries were destroyed, along with thirty-three Algerian vessels and much of the town.  The result was the release of three thousand European slaves, over a thousand of them British, along with the British Consul. Lord Exmouth returned to England in triumph. More on the action

Thomas Luny (1759–1837), born in Cornwall, an English artist and painter, mostly of seascapes and other marine-based works. At the age of eleven, Luny left Cornwall to live in London. There he became the apprentice of Francis Holman. Luny remained until 1780 in Holman's London studio.

In September 1777, Luny journied  to France. During this particular expedition, Luny almost certainly strayed from France itself; his first exhibited picture in London, seen at the Society of Artists that same year.

Luny left Holman's studio in 1780. It was around this time that Luny was frequently exhibiting at the Royal Academy, in a total of twenty-nine exhibitions between 1780 and 1802. In Leadenhall Street, Luny became acquainted with a "Mr. Merle", a dealer and framer of paintings who promoted Luny's paintings for over twenty years, to great success. Luny also found a wealthy source of business in Leadenhall Street, where the British East India Company had their headquarters; their officers commissioned many paintings and portraits from Luny. Luny was occasionally invited as a guest on the Company's ships on special occasions and voyages.

Several years later, in 1807, Luny decided to move again, this time to Teignmouth in Devon. There he received a number of commissions. Luny was by that time suffering with arthritis in both of his hands. This had no obvious impact on the quality or pace of his artistic work. In fact, of his lifetime oeuvre of over 3,000 works, over 2,200 were produced between 1807 and his death.[2] He died on 30 September 1837. More Thomas Luny

Circle of Claude-Joseph Vernet
A MEDITERRANEAN HARBOR SCENE WITH FIGURES ON THE SHORE, AND FISHERMEN LAUNCHING A BOAT
Oil on canvas
9 3/4  by 12 3/4  in.; 24.7 by 32.5 cm.
Private Collection

Claude-Joseph Vernet (born Aug. 14, 1714, Avignon, France—died Dec. 3, 1789, Paris) was a French landscape and marine painter whose finest works, the series of 15 Ports of France (1754–65), constitute a remarkable record of 18th-century life.

The son of a decorative painter, Vernet worked in Rome (1734–53), finding inspiration both in the expansive, luminous art of the 17th-century French master Claude Lorrain and in the dramatic and picturesque work of the 17th-century Italian painter Salvator Rosa. Vernet’s shipwrecks, sunsets, and conflagrations reveal an unusually subtle observation of light and atmosphere. With his compatriot Hubert Robert, he catered to a new taste for idealized, somewhat sentimentalized landscapes. After returning to Paris he became a member of the French Royal Academy and was commissioned by King Louis XV to paint the port series. The decline in his later work is attributed to overproduction. The family tradition of painting was maintained by his son Carle Vernet and his grandson Horace Vernet. More on Claude-Joseph Vernet


John George Brown, 1831 - 1913
HEADING OUT, c. 1878
Oil on canvas
20 1/2 by 30 inch
Private Collection

John George Brown (November 11, 1831 – February 8, 1913) was a British citizen and an American painter born in Durham, England on November 11, 1831. His parents apprenticed him to the career of glass worker at the age of fourteen in an attempt to dissuade him from pursuing painting. He studied nights at the School of Design in Newcastle-on-Tyne while working as a glass cutter there between 1849 and 1852 and evenings at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh while working at the Holyrood Glass Works between 1852 and 1853. After moving to New York City in 1853, he studied with Thomas Seir Cummings at the National Academy of Design where he was elected a National Academician in 1861. Brown was the Academy's vice-president from 1899 to 1904.

Around 1855, he worked for the owner of the Brooklyn Glass Company, and later he married the daughter of his employer. His father-in-law encouraged his artistic abilities, supporting him financially, letting Brown pursue painting full-time. In 1866, he became one of the charter members of the Water-Color Society, of which he was president from 1887 to 1904. Brown became famous for his depictions of street urchins found on the streets of New York (bootblacks, street musicians, posy sellers, newsboys, etc.).

Brown's art is best characterized as British genre paintings adapted to American subjects. Essentially literary, Brown's paintings are executed with precise detail, but poor in color, and more popular with the general public than with connoisseurs. More on John George Brown

Kurt Craemer, German, 1912-1961 
Fish Carrier, c. 1947
Oil on burlap 
40 x 32 inches 
Private Collection

Kurt Craemer (born March 2, 1912 in Saarbrücken, Germany , October 1, 1961 in the province of Salerno ) was a German painter , designer and illustrator . Craemer, whose family relocated from Saarbrücken to Duesseldorf in 1919, was a pupil at the Cologne school in 1928. In 1930, at eighteen-year-old he was a pupil of Paul Klee until 1933.

His first journey to Italy was in 1932. Craemer went to Ascona , Siena and Ischia and in 1934 he spent his time with his friend and teacher Karli Sohn-Rethel in Positano. There were always shorter visits to Düsseldorf. An arranged exhibition in Duesseldorf was prohibited as unwelcome and degenerate.

In 1938 he buried his father in Düsseldorf and returned immediately to Ischia. He rented a house shortly before the outbreak of the war. In 1939 Craemer brought his mother to Italy and tore the last roots with his country of origin. He spent his time during the war on the island of Procida.

In the same year Kurt Craemer fell ill with child paralysis and was paralyzed up to his hips. A new beginning at the end of 1939, now sitting in a wheelchair, was to take place in Florence. He moved to the pension of the sister Bandini at Piazza Santo Spirito. Fleeing the war brought him back to Positano, his choice as a permanent domicile at the Marina.

Apart from his closest friends and direct neighbors, there was hardly any dealings in the German language and German picture-buyers for a long time. Englishmen, Americans, Australians, and South Africans came here. Restrained by his handicap, he faced the world with humor and self-irony, humanity, and sociable temperament.  

In 1952 and 1958 Craemer participated in the Biennale di Venezia . His only German post-war exhibition took place at the Düsseldorfer Galerie Hella Nebelung. In spring 1961 he had an exhibition in the United States.

Until his death on 1 October 1961 he lived in Positano. He died in an accident on the Cilento coast. Cramer's works, most of which were made in Positano in the 1940s and 1950s, represent an important chapter in the history of the art of the province of Salerno. In 2012 the city of Positano celebrated with a centennial, Kurt Craemer, an artist with a love for Positano, Who spent most of his life there. In the exhibition "Il Sud Antico di Kurt Craemer", thirty selected works of the entire period were donated to Positano by the nephew. More Kurt Craemer

William Trost Richards, 1833 - 1905
AFTERNOON, LONG BEACH, N.J., c. 1884
Oil on canvas
18 7/8 by 30 1/4 inches, (47.9 by 76.8 cm)
Private Collection

Long Beach Island is a barrier island and summer colony along the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ocean County, New Jersey in the United States. The island has been continuously settled since 1690, initially being a destination for hunters. Barnegat Inlet, to the north of the island, was an important path for freight shipments and whaling from the 17th century through the 20th century. More on Long Beach

William Trost Richards (June 3, 1833 – November 8, 1905) was an American landscape artist. He was associated with both the Hudson River School and the American Pre-Raphaelite movement. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Between 1850 and 1855 he studied part-time with the German artist Paul Weber while working as designer and illustrator of ornamental metalwork. Richards first public showing was part of an exhibition in New Bedford, Massachusetts, organized by artist Albert Bierstadt in 1858.

In 1862 he was elected honorary member of the National Academy of Design and Academician in 1871. In 1863, he became a member of the Association of the Advanced of Truth in Art, an American Pre-Raphaelite group. In 1866, he departed for Europe for one year. Upon his return and for the following six years he spent the summers on the East Coast.

In the 1870s, he produced many acclaimed watercolor views of the White Mountains, several of which are now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Richards exhibited at the National Academy of Design from 1861 to 1899, and at the Brooklyn Art Association from 1863 to 1885. He was elected a full member of the National Academy in 1871.

He died on April 17, 1905 in Newport, Rhode Island. More on William Trost Richards

Marc-Aurèle Fortin
Port of Montreal, circa 1928
Watercolour
9 x 9.75 in, 23 x 25 cm
Private Collection

Marc-Aurèle Fortin (March 14, 1888 – March 2, 1970) was a Québécois painter, born in 1888 in Ste-Rose, Quebec. He studied art in Montreal and worked at the Montreal Post Office, and at an Edmonton bank. He studied art abroad. He was known for painting watercolour landscapes of the St. Lawrence Valley. He travelled around the St. Lawrence Valley by bicycle. Fortin believed that "Canadian artists should take their inspiration from the countryside and progress towards a national art... We should excel in landscapes, exactly as the French do".

He was part of the first Atelier exhibition at Henry Morgan Galleries in April 1932 together with Atelier founder John Goodwin Lyman, André Biéler, and Edwin Holgate. Fortin was exhibited by Galerie L'Art français from the 1940s.

His works are displayed at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in Montreal. He was a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. He died in 1970. More Marc-Aurèle Fortin

Marc-Aurèle Fortin
Port of Montreal, 1928
watercolour
8 x 10.5 in, 20.5 x 26.5 cm
Private Collection





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15 Paintings of the Canals of Venice in the 18 & 19th Century, by the artists of the time, with foot notes. #6

Apollonio Facchinetti, called Domenichini, VENICE 1715 - 1757
VENICE, A VIEW OF THE GRAND CANAL
oil on canvas
11 1/2  by 18 1/8  in.; 29.2 by 46.1 cm.
Private collection

Apollonio Domenichini, alternatively referred to as the Maestro della Fondazione Langmatt, or Menichini or il Menichino (Venice, 1715 - c.1770) was an Italian painter of vedute, active in Venice, Italy, between 1740 and 1770.

He was a pupil of Luca Carlevarijs and Johan Richter. He is best known for his pictorial representations of views of Venice and its surroundings. His name is recorded in the records of the fraglia or guild of Venetian painters in 1757, and it often appears as the painter of many works sent by the art dealer Giovanni Maria Sasso to the English minister John Strange in the second half of the eighteenth century. His name was proposed as the "master of the Langmatt Foundation" name from the series of thirteen vedute owned by the Langmatt Foundation in Baden near Zurich. More on Apollonio Domenichini

Master of the Langmatt Foundation, possibly Apollonio Domenichini (1715–1770)
Venice, view of the Fondamenta Nuove from the island of San Michele with the Ospedale and the church of San Lazzaro dei Mendicanti as well as the Canale Fondamento Nuovo and the Ponte dei Mendicanti, c. 1770
Oil on canvas
58 x 62 cm
Palais Dorotheum

The Fondamente Nove or Nuove (New Foundations) form a long series of quays forming the northern limit of the city of Venice and located on the horses of the sestieri of Cannaregio and Castello.

Approximately one kilometer long, the Nove Fondamente were made in the XVI th.  century after the burial of the lagoon band between the Canale della Misericordia and the area of Giustina Santa .

A decree by the Senate of 1589 established that the quays were to be made of stone. In the famous town plan made by Jacopo de 'Barbari in 1500, it is possible to see how the boundary between the city and the lagoon was receded by more than one hundred meters, compared to the present. On this band, won over from the sea, were built a series of dwellings on the luays that face the lagoon to the north.

Currently, the Nove Fundamentals are mostly known as the starting point for ferries to the north of the lagoon and the airport. They also run alongside the civil hospital of Venice. More on The Fondamente Nove

Apollonio Domenichini (1715–1770), see above

Master of the Langmatt Foundation Views, possibly Apollonio Domenichini (1715–1770)
Venice, view of the Fondamenta Nuove from the island of San Michele with the Ospedale and the church of San Lazzaro dei Mendicanti as well as the Canale Fondamento Nuovo and the Ponte dei Mendicanti, c. 1770
 The church of San Lazzaro dei Mendicanti
Detail

San Lazzaro dei Mendicanti is an ancient church in the sestiere of Castello, Venice, with a facade facing a Rio of the same name. It now serves as the chapel of the Civic Hospital of Venice.

By 1224, a hospital for lepers, dedicated to St Lazarus patron saint of those afflicted with the disease, was found adjacent to the church of San Trovaso in the sestiere of Dorsoduro. In 1262, a Leper Colony was quarantined to an island in the Lagoon, then called Isola di San Lazzaro.

In 1500, funds left over after the construction of the Basilica of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, were allocated to build an adjacent leper Hospital of San Lazaro. It was one of the four main hospitals (Ospedali Maggiori) in Venice. The term Mendicanti could be derived from two sources: first in 1601, the Mendicant Friars commissioned the building of this churchi. Second, the hospital appears to have served as a shelter for beggars (mendicanti), as well as lepers.

The father of Antonio Vivaldi taught violin at the music school here from 1689 to 1693. Like the Ospedale della Pietà, it took in abandoned girls who studied music and were trained to sing and play. The church still has a metal grille behind which the orphan girls (figlie del coro in Italian) sang.

For this church, the composer Simon Mayr wrote the oratorio Sisara (based on story of Sisera). More on San Lazzaro dei Mendicanti

Guglielmo Ciardi, 1842 - 1917, ITALIAN
A VIEW OF ST MARKS BASIN WITH THE PUNTA DELLA DOGANA
Oil on board
62 by 102cm., 24½ by 40in.
Private collection

Having trained in Venice, in 1868 Ciardi left for Florence where, with the help of Federico Zandomeneghi and Telemaco Signorini, he was admitted to the Caffé Michelangelo and became acquainted with the Macchiaioli. It was this experience that expanded his horizons beyond the teachings of the Accademia and led him to develop a more modern style.

Some of the key monuments of La Serenissima are visible in the distance, the Campanile of San Giorgio Maggiore and the Basilica of Santa Maria della Salute to the left and the Campanile di San Marco towards the centre of the composition. The peacefulness and stillness of this view, along with the bright warm colours are in clear Venetian tradition. However, Ciardi focuses on the description of light, of water and its reflections, rethinking the typical venetian vedute into lyrical landscapes.
Ciardi was a famous and prolific artist during his lifetime. He exhibited in numerous cities including at the Venice Biennale, at the International Exposition in Munich in 1884, in London and Glasgow. More this painting

Guglielmo Ciardi (13 September 1842 – 5 October 1917) was an Italian painter. He was born in Venice, the son of an official of the Austrian government. Ciardi enrolled in 1861 at the Venice Academy of Fine Arts, where he studied perspective with Federico Moja and landscape and seascape with Domenico Bresolin, taking over the latter’s teaching post in 1894. He went to Florence in 1868 and formed friendships with Giovanni Costa and the Macchiaioli painters. After spending some time in the countryside around Rome, he then arrived in Naples and came into contact with Filippo Palizzi and the artists of the Resina School. On his return to Venice the following year, he resumed his regular participation in the exhibitions of the Academy and the Società Promotrice di Belle Arti. Works were also sent to exhibitions in Milan, Turin, Genoa, Florence and Naples in the 1870s and 1880s. The following decade saw participation in the Milan Triennale, the Turin Exhibition of 1898 and the Venice Biennale from 1895 to 1914, with a solo show in 1909. Views of the Venetian lagoon and the countryside around Treviso were accompanied by mountain landscapes painted during his numerous stays in towns in Veneto, Trentino and Lombardy. Awarded a gold medal in 1915 at the San Francisco Exhibition, where the participants included his children Beppe and Emma, he was struck down by paralysis and died two years later. More on Guglielmo Ciardi

Francesco Guardi, (1712–1793)
The Rialto Bridge with the Palazzo dei Camerlenghi, circa 1763
Oil on canvas
Height: 60 cm (23.6 in). Width: 91 cm (35.8 in).
Private collection

Taking its vantage point from what is today the view from the Palazzo Sernagiotto, Guardi illustrates iconic landmarks of the Venetian landscape including the Palazzo Civran, the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, long famous for its murals by Giorgione and Titian, the Palazzo dei Camerlenghi, the Fruit Market and the supremely elegant Rialto Bridge itself, built in 1588–91 to the design of Antonio da Ponte. This was the spectacular scene that would have greeted tourists in the eighteenth century as they entered Venice from the south. Through his flickering delicacy of touch and masterful suffusing of colour, Guardi creates an expression of atmosphere like no other view painter of his time. More on this Painting

Francesco Lazzaro Guardi (October 5, 1712 – January 1, 1793) was an Italian painter of veduta, nobleman, and a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners of the classic Venetian school of painting.

In 1735, Guardi moved to the workshop of Michele Marieschi, where he remained until 1743. His first certain works are from 1738, for a parish at Vigo d'Anuania, in Trentino. In this period he worked alongside his older brother.

His works in this period included both landscapes and figure compositions. In 1763 he worked in Murano, in the church of San Pietro Martire, finishing a Miracle of a Dominican Saint.

Francesco Guardi's most important later works include the Doge's Feasts, a series of twelve canvases celebrating the ceremonies held in 1763 for the election of Doge Alvise IV Mocenigo. In circa 1778, he painted the severe Holy Trinity Appearing to Sts. Peter and Paul in the parish church of Roncegno.

In 1782 Guardi was commissioned by the Venetian government six canvases to celebrate the visit of the Russian Archdukes in the city, of which only two remain, and two others for that of Pope Pius VI. On September 12 of that year he was admitted to the Fine Art Academy of Venice.

Guardi died at Campiello de la Madona in Cannaregio (Venice) in 1793. More Francesco Lazzaro Guardi


Giovanni Antonio Canal, called Canaletto, VENICE 1697 - 1768
VENICE, A VIEW OF THE EQUESTRIAN MONUMENT TO BARTOLOMEO COLLEONI AND THE CHURCH OF SANTI GIOVANNI E PAOLO
oil on canvas
16 1/4  by 13 1/4  in.; 41.4 by 33.7 cm.
Private collection

The Equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni. In 1475 the Condottiero Colleoni, a former Captain General of the Republic of Venice, died and by his will left a substantial part of his estate to the Republlic on condition that a statue of himself should be commissioned and set up in the Piazza San Marco. In 1479 the Republic announced that it would accept the legacy, but that the statue would be placed in front of the Scuola of San Marco. A competition was arranged to enable a sculptor to be selected. In 1483 the contract was awarded to Bartolomeo Colleoni. He then opened a workshop in Venice and made the final wax model which was ready to be cast in bronze, but he died in 1488, before this was done.


The statue was eventually erected on a pedestal made by Leopardi in the Campo SS. Giovanni e Paolo where it stands today. More on the statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni

Canaletto, by name of Giovanni Antonio Canal (born Oct. 18, 1697, Venice—died April 20, 1768, Venice) Italian topographical painter whose masterful expression of atmosphere in his detailed views (vedute) of Venice and London and of English country homes influenced succeeding generations of landscape artists.

Canaletto was born into a noble family whose coat of arms he occasionally used as a signature. How he came to be known as Canaletto is uncertain, however; perhaps the name was first used to distinguish him from his father, Bernardo Canal (below), a theatrical scene painter in whose studio Canaletto assisted. More

Canaletto's early works remain his most coveted and, according to many authorities, his best. One of his early pieces is The Stonemason's Yard (1729, London, the National Gallery) which depicts a humble working area of the city.


Later Canaletto painted grand scenes of the canals of Venice and the Doge's Palace. His large-scale landscapes portrayed the city's pageantry and waning traditions, making innovative use of atmospheric effects and strong local colors. For these qualities, his works may be said to have anticipated Impressionism. More


Bernardo Canal, VENICE 1674 - 1744
THE GRAND CANAL: LOOKING SOUTH FROM PALAZZI FOSCARI AND MORO-LIN TO SANTA MARIA DELLA CARITÀ
oil on canvas, unframed
72.5 x 111.3 cm.; 28 1/2  x 43 7/8  in.
Private Collection

The Grand Canal in Venice, Italy forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. Public transport is provided by water buses and private water taxis, and many tourists explore the canal by gondola.

One end of the canal leads into the lagoon near the Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into Saint Mark Basin; in between, it makes a large reverse-S shape through the central districts of Venice. More Grand Canal

Santa Maria della Carità The first documented church and convent on this site were founded in 1134 by an Augustinian order of friars from Ravenna, although it is said there was a wooden church on the site before this, erected to house a miracle-working Madonna. It was consecrated by Pope Alexander II on April 5th 1177, following the six months he spent hiding in the convent from Frederick Barbarossa. In 1260 the buildings passed to the Scuola Grande di Santa Maria della Carità, making it the oldest of the six Scuole Grande in Venice. The church at this time had an external portico, once a common feature in Venice but the only two remaining are on San Nicolò dei Mendicoli and San Giacomo di Rialto. More on Santa Maria della Carità 

Bernardo Canal (Venice, Italy, 1664-1744) was an Italian painter of the 17th century. He was the father of the well-known painter Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal, above) and follower of Luca Carlevarijs (1663-1730). 

In 1695 he married Artemisia Barbieri. In 1717 he is registered for the first time in the guild of Venetian painters where he is recognized as a Member of the College of painters. On December 28, 1739, this organization awarded him the title of prior. He had two sons named Cristoforo and Antonio, the latter, became the great painter Canaletto, who began painting with his father.

Canal was mainly dedicated to painting stage sets for works by Vivaldi , Chelleri, Pollarolo and Orlandini in Venetian theaters in Sant'Angelo and San Cassiano. He later began painting urban scenes of Venice, joining, like his son, the movement of veduttismo.

His style, was characterized by the meticulousness in the architectural detail and the technical of luminosity. More on Bernardo Canal


Thomas Bush Hardy
Santa Maria De La Salute, Venice, c. 1887
Watercolour heightened with bodycolour
58.4 x 88.9cm (23 x 35in)
Private Collection

Santa Maria della Salute (English: Saint Mary of Health), commonly known simply as the Salute, is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located at Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the city of Venice, Italy.

It stands on the narrow finger of Punta della Dogana, between the Grand Canal and the Giudecca Canal, at the Bacino di San Marco, making the church visible when entering the Piazza San Marco from the water. The Salute is part of the parish of the Gesuati and is the most recent of the so-called plague churches.

In 1630, Venice experienced an unusually devastating outbreak of the plague. As a votive offering for the city's deliverance from the pestilence, the Republic of Venice vowed to build and dedicate a church to Our Lady of Health (or of Deliverance, Italian: Salute). The church was designed in the then fashionable baroque style by Baldassare Longhena. Construction began in 1631. Most of the objects of art housed in the church bear references to the Black Death.

The dome of the Salute was an important addition to the Venice skyline and soon became emblematic of the city, inspiring artists like Canaletto, J. M. W. Turner, John Singer Sargent, and the Venetian artist Francesco Guardi. More on Santa Maria della Salute

Thomas Bush Hardy (1842, Sheffield – 1897, Maida Vale, London) was a British marine painter and watercolourist. As a young man he travelled in the Netherlands and Italy. In 1884 Hardy was elected a Member of the Royal Society of British Artists. He exhibited with the Society and also at the Royal Academy.
His paintings feature coastal scenes in England and the Netherlands, the French Channel ports and the Venetian Lagoon.
Hardy had nine children. His son Dudley Hardy was a painter, illustrator and poster designer. His daughter Dorothy received an MBE after working as a nurse in the First World War. He died on 15 December 1897 in Maida Vale, London. More on Thomas Bush Hardy

Edward William Cooke
Sunset on the Lagune of Venice
San Giorgio in Alga and the Euganean Hills beyond, c. 1857
Oil on paper laid on canvas
11 ½ x 16 ¾ in. (29.2 x 42.5 cm.)
Private Collection

Edward William Cooke, R.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880) was an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener. Cooke was born in Pentonville, London. He was raised in the company of artists. He was a precocious draughtsman and a skilled engraver from an early age, displayed an equal preference for marine subjects and published his "Shipping and Craft" a series of accomplished engravings when he was 18, in 1829. Cooke began painting in oils in 1833, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution in 1835, by which time his style was essentially formed.

He went on to travel and paint with great industry at home and abroad, indulging his love of the 17th-century Dutch marine artists with a visit to the Netherlands in 1837. He returned regularly over the next 23 years, studying the effects of the coastal landscape and light, as well as the works of the country's Old Masters, resulting in highly successful paintings. He went on to travel in Scandinavia, Spain, North Africa and, above all, to Venice. In 1858, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician. . More Edward William Cooke

Jules BASTIEN-LEPAGE, (1848-1884)
Venise : la nuit sur la lagune
RMN-Grand Palais (musée Magnin) / René-Gabriel Ojéda

Here, the painter produces a highly synthetic painting with great economy of means. An analytical approach and feeling for detail bring it closer to Naturalism. Jeanne Magnin speaks of a “symphony in blue where the artist has not sought to create an effect, but has expressed a personal impression of his only trip to Venice, undertaken in 1880, when he was already suffering the early stages of the illness that would lead to his death. His heightened awareness conveys the emotion that the magical blue night sky on the blue sea aroused in him; the unbroken line of small islands is silhouetted between the sea and the sky, where the clouds are blown along by the sea breeze, obscuring and revealing the silver stars. The very modern choice to move towards monochrome, and the differentiation of planes that soften the central motif set further back, was probably a result of Bastien-Lepage’s visit to the Grosvenor Gallery where, in July 1881, the artist Whistler was exhibiting several works inspired by Venice. More la nuit sur la lagune

Jules Bastien-Lepage (1 November 1848 – 10 December 1884) was a French painter closely associated with the beginning of naturalism, an artistic style that emerged from the later phase of the Realist movement. He was born in the village of Damvillers, Meuse, and spent his childhood there. Bastien took an early liking to drawing, and his parents fostered his creativity by buying prints of paintings for him to copy.

Jules's first formal training was at Verdun, and prompted by a love of art he went to Paris in 1867, where he was admitted to the École des Beaux-arts, working under Cabanel. He was awarded first place for drawing but spent most of his time working alone, only occasionally appearing in class. During the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, Bastien fought and was wounded. After the war, he returned home to paint the villagers and recover from his wound. In 1873 he painted his grandfather in the garden, a work that would bring the artist his first success at the Paris Salon.

His initial success was confirmed in 1875 by the First Communion, a picture of a little girl minutely worked up. The last picture, Haymaking (Les Foins), now in the Musée d'Orsay, was widely praised by critics and the public alike. It secured his status as one of the first painters in the Naturalist school.

Between 1880 and 1883 he traveled in Italy. The artist, long ailing, had tried in vain to re-establish his health in Algiers. He died in Paris in 1884, when planning a new series of rural subjects. More Jules Bastien-Lepage

ANDRE BOUVARD dit MARC ALDINE, (1875-1957) 
Venice 
Oil on canvas 
46 x 55 cm
Private Collection

ANDRE BOUVARD dit MARC ALDINE, (1875-1957). Antoine Bouvard Senior, also known as Marc Aldine was born at St. Jean-de-Bournay in L'Isere. He trained as an architect and studied art and architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He became the Director of Architectural Services for the Seine, and was responsible for the construction of the Bourse du Travail and the Boulevard Morland in Paris.

His paintings show the influence of Felix Ziem, reflecting his love of Venice in the delicacy and fluidity of his use of colour, capturing in his paintings, the warmth and beauty that he found there. Known as a painter of Venetian subjects, he worked during the early part of the 20th century, becoming one of the most prolific painters of Venetian genre from this period. Bouvard’s works are broad and confidently painted, capturing all the atmosphere and charm of one of the most beautiful cities in the world. He exhibited throughout France and Italy as well as in many provincial European galleries during his own lifetime. His popularity has continued to the present day, placing him amongst the most recognized and respected painters of Venetian subjects. More on Marc Aldine.

Ludolfs Liberts, Latvian, 1895-1959 
Carnival, Venice 
Oil on canvas 
30 1/2 x 25 3/8 inches (77.5 x 64.5 cm)
Private Collection

The Carnival of Venice is an annual festival. The Carnival ends with the Christian celebration of Lent, forty days before Easter, the day before Ash Wednesday. The festival is world famous for its elaborate masks.

Ludolfs Liberts, 1895-1959, Latvian, was born in Tirza, Latvia in 1895. He studied art in Moscow and the Kazan Art School. He was featured in the Latvian-State organized traveling exhibition in Europe that appeared in several capitals. He also exhibited in France, Belgium, Germany and Sweden. He was awarded the Latvian Cultural Fund  in 1924 and 1927 as well as gold medals at exhibitions in Barcelona and Paris. His art consists of portraits and landscapes, and was a highly regarded theater decorator in his native Latvia. In Sweden, he painted mostly cityscapes from Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Liberts is represented at museums in Latvia, France, Belgium, Finland, Russia and the costume drawings at the National Museum. He died in New York on March 11, 1959. More on Ludolfs Liberts

Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal) (Italian, 1697 - 1768)
Venice: Feast Day of Saint Roch, about 1735
Oil on canvas Dimensions
147.7 × 199.4 cm (58 1/8 × 78 1/2 in.)
The National Gallery, London

In Venice the feast day of Saint Roch on 16 August commemorated the end of the terrible plague of 1576 (in which Titian died). On this day the Doge would hear mass in San Rocco where Saint Roch was buried, to celebrate his intercession in bringing the plague to an end. Canaletto's painting shows the grand procession of state dignitaries and ambassadors emerging from the church. The participants all carry nosegays, which were presented to them on arrival as a memorial of the plague. The Doge carries a parasol and wears gold and ermine ceremonial robes. Awnings give protection from the sun. More on Feast Day of Saint Roc

Canaletto, byname of Giovanni Antonio Canal (born Oct. 18, 1697, Venice—died April 20, 1768, Venice) Italian topographical painter whose masterful expression of atmosphere in his detailed views (vedute) of Venice and London and of English country homes influenced succeeding generations of landscape artists.

Canaletto was born into a noble family whose coat of arms he occasionally used as a signature. How he came to be known as Canaletto is uncertain, however; perhaps the name was first used to distinguish him from his father, Bernardo Canal, a theatrical scene painter in whose studio Canaletto assisted. More

Canaletto's early works remain his most coveted and, according to many authorities, his best. One of his early pieces is The Stonemason's Yard (1729, London, the National Gallery) which depicts a humble working area of the city.

Later Canaletto painted grand scenes of the canals of Venice and the Doge's Palace. His large-scale landscapes portrayed the city's pageantry and waning traditions, making innovative use of atmospheric effects and strong local colors. For these qualities, his works may be said to have anticipated Impressionism. More on Canaletto

Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal) (Italian, 1697 - 1768)
Venice: Feast Day of Saint Roch, about 1735
Detail

Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal) (Italian, 1697 - 1768)
Venice: Feast Day of Saint Roch, about 1735
Detail




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